The Cooling System
The purpose of the engine's cooling system is to remove excess heat from the engine, to keep the engine operating at its most efficient temperature, and to get the engine up to the correct temperature as soon as possible after starting. Ideally, the cooling system keeps the engine running at its most efficient temperature no matter what the operating conditions are.
As fuel is burned in the engine, about one-third of the energy in the fuel is converted into power. Another third goes out the exhaust pipe unused, and the remaining third becomes heat energy.
A cooling system of some kind is necessary in any internal combustion engine. If no cooling system were provided, parts would melt from the heat of the burning fuel, and the pistons would expand so much they could not move in the cylinders (called "seize").
The cooling system of a water-cooled engine consists of: the engine's water jacket, a thermostat, a water pump, a radiator and radiator cap, a cooling fan (electric or belt-driven), hoses, the heater core, and usually an expansion (overflow) tank.
Fuel burning engines produce enormous amounts of heat; temperatures can reach up to 4,000 degrees F when the air-fuel mixture burns. However, normal operating temperature is about 2,000 degrees F. The cooling system removes about one-third of the heat produced in the combustion chamber.
The exhaust system takes away much of the heat, but parts of the engine, such as the cylinder walls, pistons, and cylinder head, absorb large amounts of the heat. If a part of the engine gets too hot, the oil film fails to protect it. This lack of lubrication can ruin the engine.
On the other hand, if an engine runs at too low a temperature, it is inefficient, the oil gets dirty (adding wear and subtracting horsepower), deposits form, and fuel mileage is poor-- not to mention exhaust emissions! For these reasons, the cooling system is designed to stay out of the action until the engine is warmed up.
There are two types of cooling systems; liquid cooling and air cooling. Most auto engines are cooled by the liquid type; air cooling is used more frequently for airplanes, motorcycles and lawnmowers.
Liquid cooled engines have passages for the liquid, or coolant, through the cylinder block and head. The coolant has to have indirect contact with such engine parts as the combustion chamber, the cylinder walls, and the valve seats and guides. Running through the passages in the engine heats the coolant (it absorbs the heat from the engine parts), and going through the radiator cools it. After getting "cool" again in the radiator, the coolant comes back through the engine. This business continues as long as the engine is running, with the coolant absorbing and removing the engine's heat, and the radiator cooling the coolant.
A cooling system pressure tester is used to check the pressure in the cooling system, which allows the mechanic to determine if the system has any slow leaks. The leak can then be found and fixed before it causes a major problem.
Just like your body needs to warm up when you begin to exercise, your car's engine needs to warm up when it starts its exercise.
The thermostat provides control for your engine's warm-up period.
The thermostat is located between the engine and the radiator. This little temperature-sensitive spring valve stays closed during engine warm-up. When the thermostat is closed, it prevents coolant from leaving the engine and circulating through the radiator until the correct running temperature is reached. The correct running temperature for most engines is between 180 degrees F and 200 degrees F. When the right temperature is reached, the spring valve opens, allowing coolant to circulate through the radiator to be cooled-- almost like our bodies begin to perspire after we've warmed-up.
The temperature at which the thermostat is designed to open is called its rating, and may be stamped on the body. The 180 Degrees F thermostat begins to open at (you guessed it!) 180 Degrees F and is fully opened at 200 degrees F. Different engines use different temperature thermostats.
Some high range thermostats maintain engine operating temperatures above 200 degrees F. This causes the engine to burn up more pollutants and aids in emissions control. However the range for your thermostat depends on the type of your engine, load requirements, weather, and other variables.
Most thermostats are the "pellet" type; the name comes from the wax pellet that expands as the engine coolant warms. The pellet's expansion forces the valve open. Thermostats occasionally get "stuck shut" which cuts off the cooling capacity of the radiator, at least partially. This often occurs after an engine has overheated for some other reason, such as when the water pump fails, or if a large coolant leak develops. For this reason, car makers usually place the thermostat in an accessible position.
Depending on the air temperature, the engine should take from five to fifteen minutes to warm up. If your engine takes a long time to warm up, or if it always runs hot, you might need to test the thermostat. A malfunctioning thermostat can cause excessive engine wear and waste fuel. A good time to have your thermostat checked is just before summer or winter.
Expansion (Overflow) Tank
Several cooling systems make use of a clear plastic container, which is connected to the overflow tube from the radiator. This container provides extra storage space for the coolant when it expands and is called the expansion, or overflow tank. It is also known as the coolant reservoir, or overflow canister.
As the engine heats up, the coolant inside it expands. Without the expansion tank, the coolant would flow out of the overflow tube and be lost from the cooling system onto the street. Instead, the coolant flows into the expansion tank.
Since a vacuum is created in the cooling system when the engine cools, the vacuum causes some of the coolant in the expansion tube to be sucked back into the system. Because a cooling system with an expansion tank is virtually a closed system, the coolant can flow between the system and the expansion tank as it expands and contracts. This way, no coolant is lost if the system is functioning properly.
Another function of the expansion tank is to remove air bubbles from the cooling system. Coolant without air-bubbles is much more efficient than coolant with air bubbles, because it absorbs heat much faster.
The advantage of the expansion tank is that while the level of coolant contained in it rises and falls, the radiator is always full.
Older cars can easily be fitted with expansion tanks, simply by mounting the tank near the radiator, connecting it to the overflow tube, and replacing the radiator cap.
Radiator Cap (Pressure Cap)
The radiator cap acts as more than just a "lid" for your radiator; it keeps your engine cool by sealing and pressurizing the coolant inside it.
What makes the radiator cap special is that it is designed to hold the coolant in your radiator under a predetermined amount of pressure. If the coolant was not kept under pressure, it would start to boil, and soon you would have boiled all of your coolant away.
However, the radiator (or pressure) cap prevents this from happening by exerting enough pressure to keep the coolant from boiling. Normally, water (coolant) boils at 212 degrees F, but if the pressure is increased, the boiling temperature is also increased. Since the boiling point goes up when the pressure goes up, the coolant can be safely heated to a temperature above 212 degrees F without boiling.
What makes this important is that the higher the temperature of the coolant is, the greater the temperature gap between it and the air temperature is. This is the principle that causes the cooling system to work; the hotter the coolant is, the faster the heat in it moves to the radiator and the air passing by. So, a cooling system under pressure takes heat away from the engine faster, which makes it more efficient.
If your cooling system is under too much pressure, it can "blow its top"! To prevent this, the radiator cap has a pressure relief valve. The valve has a preset rating that allows it to take just up to a certain amount of pressure. When you turn the cap on the filler neck of the radiator, you seal the upper and lower sealing surfaces of the filler neck. The pressure relief valve spring is compressed against the lower seal when you lock the cap.
The radiator filler neck has an overflow tube right between the two sealing surfaces. If the pressure in the cooling system exceeds the preset rating of your cap, its pressure relief valve allows the lower seal to be lifted from its seat. Then the excess pressure (coolant, air) can squish through the overflow tube to the ground or the coolant reservoir.
Once enough pressure has been released (the caps preset rating), the pressure relief valve is again closed by the spring.
The pressure cap can be tested with a cooling system pressure tester, using an adapter, to make certain that it is living up to its pressure rating. It should be replaced if it fails the test.
Note: Most radiator pressure caps are not meant to be removed. Coolant should always be added through the expansion (overflow) tank. NEVER REMOVE THE RADIATOR CAP FROM A HOT ENGINE. REMOVING THE PRESSURE CAN CAUSE STEAM TO SHOOT OUT AND SERIOUSLY BURN YOU.
The reason the coolant goes into the radiator is to allow air to pass through it and cool the coolant. When you are driving fast enough, the air rushes through the grille of the car and passes through the radiator core. If you aren't driving fast enough to push air through the radiator, then the fan will pull the air through.
The fan improves cooling when you are driving at slow speeds, or if the engine is idling. It is usually mounted on the water pump shaft, and is turned by the same belt that drives the water pump and the alternator, although it can be mounted as an independent unit. Most independently mounted fans are electric.
Belt Powered Fans
The fan's activity is not always necessary, and it takes power from the engine to spin. For this reason a thermostatic control, or fan clutch, is often used to reduce drive torque when it isn't needed (variable-speed fan). A different type of fan uses centrifugal force to move its flexible plastic blades, by flattening them when the engine rpm is high (flexible-blade fan). The less angle the blades have, the less power they use. The idea of these units is to save horsepower and reduce the noise the fan makes.
A fan can have from four to six blades to suck the air through the radiator. Often the radiator has a shroud for the fan to keep it from recirculating the same hot air that has collected behind the radiator. Many fans have irregularly spaced blades to reduce resonant noise.
Front-wheel drive engines mounted transversely usually use electric fans to cool the engine. The radiator is located in the usual place, but an electric motor drives the fan. A thermostatic switch is used to turn the fan on and off at predetermined temperature settings, which it senses. The exception to this is air conditioning. If you turn on the air conditioner, you bypass the thermostatic switch, and the fan runs continuously. If you turn off the air conditioner, the thermostatic switch is re-activated, and goes back to turning the fan on and off, according to its instructions. Many cars have one electric fan for normal cooling and a separate one just for when the air conditioner is on.
There are some really nice features about the electric fan. The nicest feature is that you don't have to keep an eye on the treacherous old fan belt -- there isn't one, so you don't have to worry about its health and fitness. It's also quieter, and less of a power drain on the engine. They also help your engine by continuing to cool it after it's turned off.
V-Belt (Fan Belt)
The fan (drive) belt wedges neatly into the different pulley grooves. The belt uses the tension and friction to turn the auxiliary devices.
The fan belt is usually V-shaped, so it is also called a V-belt. The fan belt friction comes from the sides of the belt and the sides of the pulley grooves to transmit power from one pulley to the other through the belt. Since the sides of the belt are used for transmission of power, the sides have very large surface areas. The reason that the belt does not slip is because of the wedging action of the belt as it curves into the pulley grooves.
Because your belts are so essential to so many parts of your engine, it is a very good idea to periodically check their condition. Check for cracking, splitting, or fraying, especially before summer. Also, check the tightness of the belt and have it adjusted according to your owner's manual specifications. Belts have a tendency to loosen with use. On the other hand, you don't want the belt to be too tight, or it will put too much pressure on the accessory bearings and cause them to die an early death. If a belt is over three years old, have it replaced even if it looks good.
If the fan that pulls air through the radiator core to cool the engine coolant is too far back, it will end up recirculating the same hot air that has collected behind the radiator. For this reason, the radiator often has a shroud.
The radiator shroud prevents the recirculation of air around the fan. It is usually a plastic hood that encloses the fan to guide the air through the core, and stop it from coming back around and through the fan again. It also protects you from the fan blades!
Hoses are used to connect the engine and the water pump to the radiator. Radiator hoses are made of flexible rubber; size varies depending upon the type of engine. Smaller hoses run to the heater core, these are known as (you guessed it) heater hoses.
Three types of hoses are; the common hose, the molded or shaped hose, and the accordion type hose. All of these hoses may have spiral wire in their construction. Spiral wire can be molded or inserted into the hoses, in the required shape, when the hose is constructed.
The common hose is straight and cannot take much bending before collapsing. It is made of rubber with fabric reinforcement.
Molded or shaped hoses are the same as the common hose with one exception. They will not collapse when bent, because all of the bends that they need are already molded into them.
Accordion type hoses not only put up with all kinds of severe bending, but they also absorb some of the vibration between the engine and the radiator.
Water (Coolant) Jackets
When our bodies feel cold, we put on a jacket. Our car engines wear permanent jackets for the opposite reason-- to keep cool!
The water jacket is a collection of passages within the block and head. These passages let the coolant circulate around the "hot spots" (valve seats and guides, cylinder walls, combustion chamber, etc.) in order to cool them off.
The engine block is actually manufactured in one piece with the water jackets cast into the block and cylinder head. At normal operating temperature, the water pump forces the coolant through the head gasket openings and on into the water jackets in the cylinder head. It flows around in there, cooling everything off by absorbing the heat. After doing its thing, the coolant flows through the upper hose to the radiator where it releases the heat. Then, the water pump sends it back down into the engine's water jackets to continue the cooling process.
On the sides of the engine are "freeze" or "expansion" plugs, which are sheet metal plugs pressed into a series of holes in the block. These are designed to hold the pressure of the cooling system, but to pop out if the coolant in the block ever freezes.
The Heater Core
The heater core is a smaller version of the radiator that is used to keep your toes warm when it's cold outside.
The heater core is mounted under the dash board. Some of the hot coolant is routed through this little radiator, by more hoses. A small electric fan is also mounted there especially for the purpose of directing the heat inside the car. To turn this fan on, you use a switch called "fan" or "blower," located on your control panel. The principle is exactly the same as the one used in the radiator for your engine, except that the heat is released inside the car instead of outside. Most engines use the heater core to warm the air coming from the air conditioner if the dash setting is not on "cold". More efficient designs don't do this because it makes the engine work harder than it has to. They cycle the compressor on and off to lessen the cooling output.
If your car is running hot, turning the heater on will help to reduce the heat in the engine. Unfortunately, most cars don't overheat in the winter.
The Fan Clutch
The fan clutch is a small fluid coupling with a thermostatic device that controls a variable-speed fan. The fan clutch ensures that the fan will rotate at just the right speed to keep the engine from overheating, and reduces drive to the fan when it is no longer needed.
The fan clutch has a fluid coupling partly filled with silicone oil designed for just that purpose. If the temperature of the air passing through the radiator rises, the heat alerts a bimetal coil spring to "uncoil" or expand. When it expands, it allows just a little more oil to enter the fluid coupling, so the fluid coupling starts to rotate the fan. If the air coming through the radiator is cool, the opposite happens; the coil spring contracts, the oil leaves the fluid coupling and the fan slows. Slowing the fan when it is not needed reduces fuel consumption, makes less noise and saves engine power.
Sometimes a flat bimetal strip spring is used instead of a coil spring; it bows out and in when the temperature rises and drops, letting oil in and out of the fluid coupling.
Freeze Plugs (Expansion Plugs)
Freeze plugs (also called "blind" or "expansion core" plugs) are small steel plugs used to seal the holes in the engine block and head made in casting. They expand and flatten as they are driven into place, and make a tight seal. These are designed to hold the pressure of the cooling system, but to pop out if the coolant in the block ever freezes.
If you have a leak in your cooling system, freeze plugs are one of the areas to have checked.
Temperature Sending Units
Since it is critical for you to keep an eye on the temperature of the coolant in your cooling system at all times, your car will have either a gauge or a warning light located on the instrument panel or dashboard (see temperature gauge). The question is, how does the information about your coolant get to the gauge? It gets there, or is sent by the temperature sending unit.
The temperature sending unit is a device that is placed so that it can determine the temperature of the engine coolant. Simply put, its resistance to electricity changes with increases and decreases in the temperature of the coolant. The electric resistance changes control the movement of the indicator needle on the temperature gauge. If you have an indicator light, or lights, these changes will cause the bulb to be connected to the battery if the temperature of your coolant gets too high. If this happens, the light goes on.
There are two types of sending units. One type uses a Bourdon tube instrument, a capillary tube filled with a special gas, and a capsule, or bulb. The other type uses an electric sender receiver.
The Bourdon tube type works by having one end of the tube attached to the gauge fitting, and the free end fastened to the needle indicator. A Bourdon tube is a round, hollow metal tube. Putting pressure on the hollow end causes it to try to straighten, so that the other end moves the needle on the gauge. Because it is placed in an engine water jacket, the pressure from the coolant temperature causes it to move, which, in turn forces the other end to move the gauge needle. When the coolant cools, the lack of pressure allows the needle to swing back to cold on the gauge.
The electric sender receiver type has a bimetal thermostat in the dashboard. This thermostat is linked to the gauge needle, so that when the engine gets warmer and passes more current, the thermostat, getting hotter itself, bends. When the thermostat bends, it moves the gauge needle, which indicates that the coolant temperature is rising. As it cools off, the thermostat "unbends" again, and the needle drops back to the cold indicator.
The Temperature Gauge
Some cars have temperature gauges, and some have indicator lights. The purpose of these temperature viewing devices is one of extreme importance to you while operating your vehicle, because you need to monitor the temperature of your coolant at all times.
The temperature gauge, or indicator light, is installed on the dash or control panel of your car. If this light comes on, it indicates that something has gone terribly wrong in your engine.
A temperature gauge gives you more of a complete picture. It gradually moves from "Cold", when you start your engine, up toward the "Hot" indicator. Usually this type of gauge will have some type of marking (like RED) to show you when you are approaching the danger zone. When your engine is happy, it will usually move up to (and stay put) somewhere in the middle. If it advances into the "red" zone, STOP and let it cool down. Give the engine a rest for half an hour with the hood up. DON'T REMOVE THE RADIATOR CAP UNTIL THE ENGINE COOLS OFF. Don't pour water over the engine, this can crack the block. When the engine has cooled off, check the water level, start the engine, then fill it up with water or antifreeze. When you get to a service station, have the problem fixed as soon as possible.
Temperature increase can sometimes indicate problems not directly involved with the cooling system.
Some vehicles have indicator lights instead of gauges. These are more difficult to monitor, since nothing much happens until there is a problem. Indicator lights are located in the control panel or dashboard. Some cars have a "Cold" indicator light. This will go on when you start the car, and go out when normal operating temperature has been reached. The "Hot" light goes on when the car is overheating. This light is designed to light up at 5 to 10 degrees F below the coolant's boiling point. This light tells you to STOP before the engine is damaged, let it cool down, and have the problem discovered and fixed.
Indicator lights have one other feature, called "prove-out." This means that when you turn the key in the ignition switch, the lights should go on for just a moment to "prove" that they are functioning, and that the bulbs haven't burned out. It is very important for you glance at them each time you start your car to make sure that they are in working order. Suppose your "Hot" indicator light bulb has burned out. If your engine is overheating, it won't be able to tell you. As a result, you'll go driving on your merry way to engine damage city without a clue. Your first clue will be a "knocking" or "pinging" sound during acceleration, and at that point, it's usually too late to prevent serious damage.
Engine oil gets quite hot as it removes heat from the cylinder walls, pistons, and other engine parts, so we need to have a way to cool the oil off. Usually this happens when the airstream passes over the oil pan. Also, the cooling system is doing its job of keeping the engine temperature down so that the oil doesn't have too much to contend with. Routinely, the oil loses some heat as it goes through the oil filter and also as the whole engine gives off heat. For all of these reasons, it's unusual for the oil to become overheated.
However, there are some situations when special equipment needs to be added to keep the oil temperature down. Heavy duty engines, and normal duty engines that are carrying heavy loads are often equipped with oil coolers. Also, almost all air-cooled engines have oil coolers.
There are several types of oil coolers. One type fits between the oil filter and engine block. It's a compartment passageway made up of thin disks. The oil is forced through this passage, where engine coolant circulates around it, and cools it off.
A different type of oil cooler "borrows" a small section of the coolant radiator and gets cooled off the same way as the coolant does; forced air from the grille and the fan.
Transmission Fluid Cooler
As it is possible for the transmission fluid in automatic transmissions to overheat, causing reduction in performance and transmission damage, a transmission fluid cooler is a must. Manual transmissions (with the exception of racing car type vehicles) do not generally need transmission fluid coolers.
The transmission fluid cooler is either a "borrowed" section of the engine's coolant radiator, or a separately mounted little tube with fins. The fluid is forced to flow through one of these arrangements, and consequently, cooled.
Tube Type Transmission Fluid Cooler
The tube type of transmission fluid cooler is usually located in the radiator's end cap. Because of its location it is immersed in and cooled by the engine's coolant. Then, when the transmission fluid passes through it, the fluid is cooled. Two metal tubes, called the transmission cooler lines, are attached to the outlet tank of the radiator and carry the fluid between the transmission and the fluid cooler.
Auxiliary Transmission Fluid Cooler
Vehicles that are factory equipped with packages for towing often also come equipped with an auxiliary fluid cooler. This cooler is mounted in front of the radiator and connected with the trans- mission. The auxiliary cooler is like a small engine coolant radiator.
Both types of transmission fluid coolers ask the engine cooling system to do a bigger job; the tube type transfers the heat to the coolant. The auxiliary type, since it is mounted in front of the radiator, warms the air before it passes through the radiator.
The radiator is a device designed to dissipate the heat which the coolant has absorbed from the engine. It is constructed to hold a large amount of water in tubes or passages which provide a large area in contact with the atmosphere. It usually consists of a radiator core, with its water-carrying tubes and large cooling area, which are connected to a receiving tank (end cap) at the top and to a dispensing tank at the bottom. Side flow radiators have their "end caps" on the sides, which allows a lower hood line.
In operation, water is pumped from the engine to the top (receiving) tank, where it spreads over the tops of the tubes. As the water passes down through the tubes, it loses its heat to the airstream which passes around the outside of the tubes. To help spread the heated water over the top of all the tubes, a baffle plate is often placed in the upper tank, directly under the inlet hose from the engine.
Sooner or later, almost everyone has to deal with an overheating car. Since water is readily available, it is not beyond the ability of most people to add some to their radiator if it's low. BUT PRECAUTIONS MUST BE TAKEN OR SERIOUS BURNS CAN RESULT. Here are a few pointers for dealing with an overheated radiator:
Water pumps come in many designs, but most include a rotating impeller, which forces the coolant through the engine block. In most rear wheel drive cars, the fan is installed on the end of the water pump shaft. Many water pumps have a spring-loaded seal to avoid leakage of water around the pump shaft. Modern pumps are fitted with pre-packed ball bearings, which are sealed at each end to eliminate the need for lubrication.
Impeller type water pumps must turn rapidly to be efficient, and worn or loose drive belts can permit slippage which is not easily detected.
The bypass hose allows coolant to recirculate within the engine, without passing through the radiator, as it does when the engine is warmed up and the thermostat opens. The bypass hose connects the thermostat housing and the water pump. The water enters the bypass tube through the bypass valve, when such a valve is fitted.
The bypass valve is sometimes operated thermostatically; it closes off the bypass hose when a certain temperature is reached. This increases the circulation of the coolant within the engine. Many cars don't need a bypass valve, because there is plenty of coolant going through the radiator hoses due to the thermostat.
Coolant (antifreeze) is a complex chemical liquid that allows the engine to run at higher and lower temperatures than plain water would otherwise allow. It helps prevent freezing in cold climates, so that cars can operate in sub zero temperatures, and boils at a higher temperature than water. This gives the car more flexibility in accommodating temperature ranges. It also serves to lubricate the water pump as it flows through. Some antifreeze compounds are specially formulated for aluminum radiators. Coolant is supposed to be kept somewhere between 20 and 60 percent of the mixture in your car, depending on the car and climactic conditions. Too strong of an antifreeze mixture can cause leaks in your car's cooling system.
Coolant is extremely poisonous and should never be poured out on the ground. Animals are very attracted to it's sweet smell and drink it.
This will kill them. Keep antifreeze in a safe place, where young children will not have access to it; it is poisonous to them as well as animals.
When air passes over an object, it can accumulate heat energy or deposit heat on the object. This is thermal convection in action. The radiator is designed to transfer the coolant's heat energy to the air.
As air passes through the radiator, the heat in the coolant actually passes through the metal and is absorbed by the air. When the air reaches the far side of the radiator, it is at a greater temperature and the coolant is at a lower temperature because it dissipated its heat into the air. The same principle is at work within the transmission cooler of a radiator, if the car has an automatic transmission. The transmission fluid flowing through the cooler gives off it's heat to the coolant within the radiator, which then gives off it's heat to the air flowing through the radiator.
Disc brakes and various other parts which need cooling dissipate heat directly into the air without using water. Some types of cars, such as Volkswagens, use air cooled engines. These eliminate the need for water by having more engine surface area through the use of cast fins. These allow the air to pass over a large surface area of the engine and thus transfer heat directly to the air.
As your car travels down the road, the air that passes through the radiator grille either exits through the floor of the engine compartment, or it may pass out through the sides of the car, through what are known as gills. These side vents allow the air, which is compressed within the engine compartment to exit to an area which is of relatively low pressure rather than trying to force it under the car where there isn't as much room for it.
The clamps used to secure the ends of radiator hoses come in a variety
of designs. Most use a simple one piece design, which has no adjustment
when installed. The other major design uses a screw drive to allow a wide
size range and greater adjustability. These types are better in some ways,
but if they are overtightened, they can cut through the hoses.